Year of Christ’s death


"Does not the apostolic today derive its mystery, power and dignity wholly and utterly from this yesterday of the underground waters of Jesus’ past being which come to the surface in the Passover time as a spring which swells to a great river in their time? In this Yesterday it takes place first and properly that the Kingdom of God comes and is proclaimed in parable, signs and wonders. Here it is that the reconciliation of the world with God is accomplished on the cross. Here it is that the foundations of the community are laid. Here it is that the great dividing line is secretly but very really drawn which marks off the new age from the old. Here there lives and moves and acts and suffers the Lord who reveals Himself as such at the resurrection, and then in the power of this revelation builds, maintains and rules his community until the new age is consummated."

 … wenn wir (den Menschen Jesu) … so sehen, wie er in der neutestamentlichen Erinnerung tatsächlich gelebt hat und wie er uns in der evangelischer Überlieferung tatsächlich gezeigt ist – dann springt uns unwiederstehlich die Fülle gerade dieses Gestern, gerade dieser gewesenen Zeit ins Auge. Wie sollte sie (diese gewesene Zeit der Osteroffenbarung) geringer sein als die (Zeit) der apostolischen Gegenwart? Was hat diese (Gegenwart) vor jener (Osteroffenbarung) voraus als dies, das in ihr die Offenbarung dessen bezeugt und geglaubt und durch den Heiligen Geist vergegenwärtig wird, was in jener noch verborgen ist? Aber hat nicht jene vor ihr dies voraus, dass eben in jener das unterirdische Wasser strömt, daß dann in der Osterzeit als Quelle ans Tageslicht tritt, um in der Apostolzeit zum Fluß und Strom zu werden? Hat das apostolische Heute sein Geheimnis, seine Kraft, seine Würde nicht ganz und gar von jenem Gestern her? Hier, in diesem Gestern, geschieht es doch zuerst und eigentlich, daß das Reich Gottes kommt und im Geheimniswort, aber auch durch Zeichen und Wunder verkündigt wird, daß die Versöhnung der Welt mit Gott am Kreuz zur Vollstreckung kommt. Hier wird doch der Grund der Gemeinde gelegt. Hier fällt doch – höchst verborgen, aber höchst real – die grosse, das Vorher vom Nachher trennende Entscheidung. Hier atmet und lebt, hier handelt und leidet doch der Herr, der sich zu Ostern als solcher offenbart hat, um nachher in der Kraft dieser seiner Offenbarung seine Gemeinde zu erbauen, zu erhalten, zu regieren, bis auch dieses Nachher zu seinem Ziel gekommen sein wird. …  Karl Barth, Kirchliche Dogmatik, Die Lehre von der Schöpfung, Dritter Band, Zweiter Teil, § 47, Theologischer Verlag, Zürich, 1974, p. 570,















Creation……Israel       :                                                Annual

Seventh Day        :   Passover  . . . . . Atonement . . . . .Tabernacles             

   Sabbath           Sabbath



      Shewbread        Lamb              Goat          






Fullness of Time                                                           The Coming God in the flesh

The Kingdom has come

The Thousand Years and

End Time have begun                                                                                                           


33 Years

          The Coming God in

                         Crucifixion     Resurrection      Third Day

     Exaltation                      Enters Rest


Witness of the World                                                             Forty Days


                                                Taken up

Wait in Jerusalem                                                                  Ten Days

.                                                            Pentecost                                               .

Witness to the World                            Sabbath

Times of Gentiles                     Pisidia                           Sabbaths’

                   Sabbath                     Feast


Apostolic Church              Church of the Synagogue                 100 AD

.                                                                                                                                                .

                             G   e   n   t   i   l   e        C   h   u   r   c   h


 L       A       S      T                    D      A      Y      S

            C     H     R     I     S     T    ’S           R     E     T    U     R     N

      New                   Resurrection and       Resurrection and         New

Jerusalem            Judgement of wicked  Glorification of saved      Earth


Feast of Booths – Birth of Jesus and the Sabbath

All Old-Testament Feasts were prophetic of Jesus the Christ and all were fulfilled in Him once for all, we have said in The Lord’s Day in the Covenant of Grace 1 / 1, p. 197, Paragraph The death of Jesus brought the end of all sacrifice in that all sacrifices are as it were contained in the Sacrifice of Him. All these Old-Testament Feasts were also prophetically fulfilled on the Sabbath Day – by no means accidentally but predetermined and by no means incidentally but significantly because they all are eschatology and therefore Christian Faith – see Paragraph 7.7, Part 3 / 4. All these Feasts are celebrated in remembrance of Christ and his finishing of all God’s works – all these Feasts are celebrated in Christian observance of the Sabbath!

          We have also referred to Isaiah 66 and the prophetic word on the Sabbath there, that it in the Kingdom of God or “on the new earth” would perpetually be kept. Only in the Christian era had the Sabbath reached its real potential and importance because what gives it meaning is Christ Resurrected – the Author and Finisher of the Faith of the Israel of God!

            In the same strain as Isaiah, Zechariah reads, “And it shall come to pass that everyone that is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall even go up from year to year to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles … In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD …”. (14:16) This prophecy speaks of Christ, and of the Christian era. It speaks of Christians as celebrating the Feast of Tabernacles.

            What does the Feast of Tabernacles symbolise? Of course the Incarnation of Jesus Christ, His birth as a Child of man. Says John,  The Word was made flesh and tabernacled among us, and we beheld His glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth. … And of His fullness have all we received, and grace for grace. For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. No man has seen God at any time. The only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, He hath declared Him.” 1:14-18.

            Notice the thought of fullness and fulfillment, of the finishing and perfection of the revelation of God and His work in the event of Jesus’ incarnation through birth in the flesh. Notice the aura of God’s Rejoicing and Rest – the spirit of his Sabbath!

            But we have seen this very truth even stronger and clearer indicated in Jesus’ eternal tabernacling in the flesh through resurrection from the dead! Even Jesus’ nativity was the beginning and foreshadowing of His sorrows and death … and through His sorrows and death of His eternal incarnation in glory of victory over sorrow and death.  We have seen how Jesus – through and in the event of His resurrection from the dead “entered into His Own Rest as did God from His”. We have heard the Scriptures proclaim this event and this day “In the Sabbath”! So that the Feast of Tabernacles is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, in Resurrection from the dead, “in the Sabbath”, and God’s “Rest” of “Sabbath” in this event and in this day came true. For being this Christian Faith, the Feast of Tabernacles is truly first celebrated by Christians who have “received” “the Word” “among us”. Zechariah’s prophecy has been fulfilled in Jesus Christ – not only in His birth, but in resurrection from the dead, bodily, incorruptable and glorified – not only in the Feast of Tabernacles – but in it as essentially of the very essence of the Passover Feast – which, above all, is the Resurrection Sabbath Feast! This Promise is thus celebrated a Christian Feast in the Church’s keeping of the Sabbath!

            These thoughts awaken the expectancy that Jesus was also born on a Sabbath Day. And indeed we find such indications in the story of the Nativity. Jesus’ parents took abode in a “resting place” – there where even the animals were rested during night and cold. But this time the shepherds rested their animals under the benevolent skies, outside! Jesus’ star – at this point in time – “came to rest” over the place reserved for Him. Everybody and the whole world seemed to have found some place and way for reposing the day. Even the angelic hosts broke out in great rejoicing in the Lord in this day,  Today is born for the People a Redeemer” – the Bringer of peace and rest! This was the day, God … as on creation Sabbath, visited man and conversed with him in Mercy. The Great Day of Yahweh was entered upon, this day in the life of His Son and of the People. The Nativity was God’s first glorious “Yes!” to man. Was it not in the Sabbath Day, Day of God’s, and man’s, Rest …?

Now, that is God’s first, “Yes!” to man in Christ. But, “From the Resurrection: Life! – that, surely is Passover? … The Risen Christ carries the new humanity within Him: God’s last glorious “Yes!” to the new man.” (Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Meditations) Was it not in the Sabbath Day, Day of God’s Rest …? “Then suddenly indeed!” (kai idou). “From the Resurrection: Life!God in Jesus Christ “tabernacled among us” “to reign for ever and ever”. From the Resurrection: Life! – that, is Feast of Tabernacles indeed! (But this time in the heart of Springtime and the new birth of Life!)

In Jesus Christ all Feasts are become one – all Feasts in God’s Sabbath Day, “the Lord’s Day” in the covenant of grace!


Borrowed from Johan Malan of the University of the North, South Africa, his article, Prophetic Progamme in the Feasts of Israel, the following,

          … the feasts of Israel are really the feasts of the Messiah. Biblical evidence indeed suggests that Jesus was born during the Feast of Tabernacles. The following clues in events leading to the birth of the Messiah, are relevant:

An important indication is the time when Zacharias, a member of the priestly family of Abijah, conducted his duties in the temple. 1 Chronicles 24 contains an account of the allotment of two weeks of temple service to each of 24 families in a fixed schedule: "This was the schedule of their service for coming into the house of the Lord" (1 Chr. 24:19). The eighth family in the group of 24 was that of the priest Abijah (1 Chron. 24:10).

The first month in the cycle was Nisan, which is the first month in the religious calendar (Ex. 12:2, Lev. 23:5).  According to this schedule the family of Abijah was the eighth group, and was therefore due for service in the second half of the fourth month in the Jewish calendar. It was to this family that priest Zacharias, the father of John the Baptist, belonged:

"There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the division of Abijah... So it was, that while he was serving as priest before God in the order of his division, according to the custom of the priesthood, his lot fell to burn incense when he went into the temple of the Lord

" (Lk. 1:5, 8-9).While he was busy with his task, an angel appeared to him and said:"Do not be afraid, Zacharias, for your prayer is heard; and your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you shall call his name John" (Lk. 1:13).

The rest of the events are closely associated with this announcement:

"Now after those days his wife Elizabeth conceived; and she hid herself five months... Now in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a city of Galilee named Nazareth, to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin's name was Mary... The angel said to her: Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favour with God. And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bring forth a Son, and shall call His name Jesus. He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Highest; and the Lord will give Him the throne of His father David. And He will reign over the house of Jacob forever... Now indeed, Elizabeth your relative has also conceived a son in her old age; and this is now the sixth month for her who was called barren. For with God nothing will be impossible. Then Mary said: Behold the maidservant of the Lord! Let it be to me according to your word" (Lk. 1:24, 26-27, 30-33, 36-38).

Zacharias' encounter with the angel, and his wife's conception shortly afterwards, occurred in the second half of the fourth month in the religious calendar. Six months later, in the second half of the tenth month (about the time of the present Christmas celebrations), Mary conceived. Nine months later, in the second half of September, Jesus was born.

Since Zacharias' turn of service in the temple, 15 months (6+9) elapsed until the birth of Jesus – that is one year and three months. Within the framework of the religious calendar of the Jews, this period expired between the second half of the fourth month and the second half of the seventh month in the following year. The birth of Jesus therefore coincided with the Feast of Tabernacles: "The fifteenth day of this seventh month shall be the Feast of Tabernacles for seven days to the Lord" (Lev. 23). …  (Emphasis CGE)



P. 94, Letter 11 May 2002, p. 273. Where and how do we differ? I count from 457 BC to 33 AD to complete or “fill up” 490 years – not to 34 AD? 457 plus 33 =  490.

            In the first place: There is no such thing as a year “zero” just as in graphics there is no 0-value greater or smaller than 0. The 0-space actually is a point only where the horisontal and vertical lines cut or cross. Any way away from point 0 no longer is 0 but adds up to fractions of either 1 or of –1. The year in process is reckoned and dated prospectively. September of 1 AD or B.C. still falls within the first year after or before Christ. Therefore: The unfinished 27th year in process is the 27th calendar year, i.e., “in the year of 27 AD”. Likewise the first century was in process, i.e. “in the year of 27 AD”, “of the first century”, after Christ. (E.g., Justin Martyr wrote “in the second century”, that is, “in the in process second century”, i.e., in about 157 AD.)

            Jesus was baptised and anointed by the Holy Spirit “in the year of 27 AD” – say you (the Seventh Day Adventists’ interpretation), taking the year 457 B.C. as starting point. I go along with this date, as David Hill – against his own pick – affirms it, “Why then did Esra credit the temple construction in part to the command of Artaxerxes? (Esra 6:14) Artaxerxes the gandson of Darius 1 and great granson of Cyrus, began his reign upon the death of his father Xerxes in 465 B.C. about 50 years after the completion of the temple, and his reign continued until 425 B.C.. It was not until the seventh year of Artaxerxes’ reign in 457 B.C. that he sent Ezra the priest to Jerusalem with gifts to be used for service in the temple of God.” (What Really Happened in 1844?, Note 1 to p. 3, par. “Bible scholars …”)

Dn.9:25 states, “Know therefore and understand (No “closing up” here!) that from the going forth (commissioning) of the command (contract) to restore and build Jerusalem …”. Mrs White, I think, justly insisted that “The seventy weeks were declared by the angel to date from the going forth of the commandment … in its completest form … issued by Artaxerxes king of Persia, B.C. 457. … These three kings, (whom Hill also recognises) in (respectively) originating, re-affirming, and completing the decree, brought it to the perfection required by the prophecy to mark

the beginning ... …”. (See end-phrase further on.)

In the engineering business a project is “commissioned” the day it is put into operation. The “commission” doesn’t mean the “command” or “contract” to begin and build the project. It means to end this and to start with full scale production.

Compare Is. 44:24-28. Cyrus would start the process of putting into movement what would end in the “going forth of the command” – he would not effectively finish it or “deliver” the “turnkey-operation”.

A new Republic only when having been recognised by neighbouring powers can legitamately claim its “going forth” in independency and sovereignty. Artaxerxes’ command of 457 B.C., with gifts of acknowledgement, implies the accomplishment of just that – the final commissioning or “going forth” of  Cyrus’ original command to re-instate the Judean state and sovereignty.

Then consider the word for “going forth” – motsa, used, e.g., for working “horses brought from Egypt”. Vein – as opposite of artary. Surface water of fountain. Sunrising opposite of sun setting. Utilising of sanctuary after all “ordinances” are in place – opposite of entering into (Ez.44:5). Exodus accomplished, Nmb.33:2. “Rejoice Zebulun in thy going forth (yatsa) Dt.33:18.

Conclusion: motsa – “going forth”, means resultant and effected beginningnot: ab urbe condita – “since the city had been founded”, or since the initial getting together of agreement, tools, materials and labour.

Mrs. White’s phraseology, “required by the prophecy”, is most significant. The prophecy of the 490 years or 70 weeks indeed is determined from the point of view of its fulfillment and of its own strength so that it should be reckoned from its end to its beginning. Christ determines times and prophecies – they don’t determine Him. So this dating is confirmed both from the marking of its start as from the marking of its completion. I am convinced one does not have to fear contradiction or ridicule for one’s premise and premiss of taking 457 B.C. for the beginning of the 70 weeks prophecy.

            That then inevitably requires Jesus Christ for being its fulfillment and confirmation. That then inevitably requires the Passover as prophetic type of the seventy weeks. The prophecy never and not by the farthest stretch of the imagination could answer this requirement in Antiochus Epiphanus (as Hill thinks).

            But just as emphatically and surely does that separate this prophecy from the “vision” of the “2300 ereb and boqer (offerings)”. Mrs. White though is mistaken as can be where she draws from the dating of this prophecy of the 70 weeks, also the

starting point – and end – of the 2300 morning and evening offerings.

            Taking as basic date then the year 457 B.C., it was about the month of “Tishri” or “Ethanim” – Autumn round about September and the time of the Day of Atonement. Jesus’ end-time ministry of 3 ½ years started. Three and half years after his baptism, Springtime, round about March / April, Jesus was crucified “in the middle of the week”.

            According to the Adventists’ count then:

From Sept. 27 AD to Sept 28 AD = 1 year;

From Sept. 28 AD to Sept 29 AD = 2 years;

From Sept. 29 AD to Sept 30 AD = 3 years;

From Sept. 30 AD to April 31 AD = 3 ½ years;

From April 31 AD to Sept 32 AD = 4 years;

From Sept. 32 AD to Sept 33 AD = 5 years;

From Sept. 33 AD to Sept 34 AD = 6 years;

From Sept. 34 AD to Sept 35 AD = 7  full years. 

The year in process is the calendar year – and the Seventh Day Adventists’ dating of 34 AD should be 35 AD. On the other hand, had 34 AD been correct, the “seventieth week” lasted only 6 years. In any case, 457 BC to 34 AD gives 491 years and not 490 years. And 457 years before Christ deducted from 490 years stretching from before to after Christ, brings one to 33 AD and not to 34 AD. And should one deduct 490 years from 2300 years reckoned from 457 BC, one would reach 1843 AD, and not 1844 (“22 October”) as they presume. (Remember the “disappointment of 1843”? “William Miller admitted his mistake”, Hill tells us, and concludes, “The Scriptures clearly disprove the 1844 doctrine.”) Although I agree with Hill on our mutual disagreement with the Adventists, I still disagree with him, in that he persists in finding some “way" outside of Jesus Messiahto link” the two prophecies.

The “seventy weeks”, which Dn.9:24 with as many words confirms, end with the end of the “seventieth week” or 490th year. Several Reformers and scholars agree that neither the destruction of the temple nor the destruction of Jerusalem could be regarded as the end of the “period of probationary mercy”, “determined upon thy people” the Jewish nation. Seventh Day Adventists point to these events as the end of the period of the 490 years or as the end of the Jews’ “probationary time”.

Seventh Day Adventists consider the 70 weeks or 490 years as being “cutt off” (Dn.9:24) off 2300 “years” which they get from the prophecy of “two thousand and three hundred evening and morning oblations” (Dn 8:14). They explain the days of the “weeks” as well as the “evening and morning oblations” as each unit comprising one year. Asks Hill, “Can the ‘2300 evening mornings’ of Dn.8:14 be linked in any way with the 490 years of the prophecy of chapter 9 which was delivered to Daniel several years (9 years) later?” To find an answer, Hill refers to the context, to Daniel’s prayer, wherein Daniel is thinking of “the curse and the oath written in the Law of Moses the servant of God (that) have been poured out on us (the Jews in exile)”. This Law assures the People that “if ye do not obey Me, but walk contrary to Me, then I also will walk contrary to you in fury, and I, even I, will chastise you seven times for your sins.” (Lv.26:25-28) Daniel fears his People are still such great sinners that God would consider keeping them another seven times as long in exile! (“Do not delay, my God!”, 9:19) And in some measure God does exactly that. He allows the People to return to Jerusalem and their country and temple (Jr.25:29:10), but in no way to a land and a future of peace and prosperity. On the contrary, God extends over the Jews another period of trial – “seven times seven weeks of probationary (years) over your People” – “years of trial” = “are determined” / “cut off”. In the end not the People, but the Prince of the People would avail and effect “the finishing of the transgression, the making an end of sins, the making of reconciliation for iniquity, and the bringing in of everlasting righteousness and of sealing finally and fully vision and prophecy” – which indeed would mean the anointing of the Most Holy of God, His Chosen Jesus Christ. Antiochus Epiphanus miserably fails as the fulfiller of this prophecy. So does imperial Rome – and so does Anti-Christ Rome. Only Jesus Christ is able to. Therefore Hill is wrong where he says “We see that the divine purpose of the 490 years period is consistent with and pertinent to dealing with national sin.” The dealings with sin here is with all men’s and all times’ sin by the One Who could deal with it and finally would deal with it.

But Antiochus Epiphanius historically very significantly did play a part in the fulfillment of certain aspects of the 2300 ereb and boqer. (Refer to Josephus, Antiquities and the books of the Maccabaeans.) The Feast of the Dedication of the temple was instituted (164 B.C.) to commemorate the ending of the “desolation” of the Jewish religion caused by Antiochus – and Jesus gave recognition to it, John 10:22. But so did also the armies of imperial Rome in 70 and 134 AD in destroying both temple and city. And so also did the armies of the Pope through centuries of destroying the Temple of God’s true worshippers with the sword as well as with cunning. And so did many more anti-Christs – and will do untill the end shall have come. Both prophecies make that unambigiously clear.

Precisely herein the Adventists are confused. Because they cannot find physical political fulfilling events of the ending or “cutt-off” date of the seventy weeks period in that prophecy, they go look for it in the vision of the 2300 ereb boqer. There they find the “desolation” cause to God’s temple, in order to apply it to the Jewish nation. That is how they then see the end of the Jews’ “propbationary time” in the events of the destruction of the temple and the city – and blend or intertwine the two prophecies.

But notice! The angel – in the prophecy of the seventy weeks – supposes God Himself as the Determinator of the “determinating” or “cutt-off” point “upon thy people” the Jews. It would be a prophetic eschatological historic event to do just that – not a political and physical. And it would be a Paschal (Passover) event! In the night of Israel’s exodus God’s “passing over” was one of judgement upon the Egyptians – one of their being “passed by” so that they won’t be included under God’s provision for mercy, and would be “cutt off” and cast out of God’s redeeming “passing over”! Exactly such a “passing by” finally occurrred upon the Jews according to Acts 13 in exact fulfilment of the Passover’s prophetic Gospel-meaning.  

The 2300 ereb and boqer, Hill thinks, were “The number of sacrifices that would be omitted during the time that sacrifices would be prevented under the reign of the “little horn”. These are 2300 literal evening and morning sacrifices”. (See Matthew Henry.) It should not be insisted on so literally though – we in any case are not allowed to reach full meaning of the vision. But the important reason is that the vision of the 2300 evening and morning offerings has its bearing on the Messiah as its Real fulfillment and Fulfiller, and on “the time of the end”, “the latter time of the indignation” – “for at the appointed time the end shall be”.

Jesus refers to the vision of the 2300 ereb and boqer, saying, “When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation – spoken of by Daniel the prophet – stand in the holy place …”. (Mt.24:14) Jesus seems here to unlock what in the book of Daniel had been sealed close (8:26), for He says, “Whoso readeth, let him understand!” THIS PROVES THE VISION HAD END-TIME APPLICATION – IT DID NOT END WITH ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANIUS. BUT IT ALSO PROVES IT NEITHER ENDS NOR BEGINS WHERE THE SEVENTY WEEKS END … OR BEGIN!

However, Jesus is it, and not Antiochus Epiphanus. Without a single date of either of these prophecies established one hundred percent, they still are Messianic – that is, they still find their sense and essence in Jesus for being the Passover Lamb of God! Both prophetic revelations are Messianic. And that does not depend on dating. The Protestant Reformers perceived the prophecies’ true significance and yet didn’t try to fix them to definite datings. They saw Christ in them and the Pope His adversary.

The scope of the vision of the 2300 ereb boqer extends from the Medes and Persians (20) to the Prince of princes. (25) “In the latter time of their kingdom when the transgressors are come to the full” (23) “he (the “king understanding dark sentence” – Imperial Rome) “stood up against”, (and so would again papal Rome) and killed the Prince! Jesus Christ introduced the “end-time”. But that does not mean the prophecies are identical or chronologically synchronise (exactly). It is said that the vision did “apply to the end-time” though (17, 19). First, it did apply to the end as being accomplished in the judging of the Prince, and, second, the end as being accomplished in and by the Prince judging princes – eschatologically in and by Jesus the Coming God Incarnate; eschatologically again in and by Jesus the Incarnate Coming God. The “vision of the evening and morning” offerings (“sacrifice”), plainly exuberantly and finally had been brought to an end in and through Jesus Christ who conquered. He “broke the power” and conquered even the last enemy “without a hand” through resurrection from the dead of the First Sheaf! Then again Revelation says that when the number of the martyrs for the faith of Jesus would be full – of whom the eber and boqersacrifices” are the symbol and analogy – He again will “break the power” and conquer even the last enemy “without a hand” through resurrection from the dead of the saints of the completed harvest! Which view is in perfect agreement with Matthew 24 and Jesus’ command to understand the vision at this point in history – to which the angel must have referred when saying, “For it applies to the far future”, Dn.8:26b.


Simple is the “truth” of this vision! It no longer is something future – that future had been brought into the present by the principality and revelation of Christ’s rule and the Kingdom of heaven! “The sanctuary” – since – HAD BEEN “cleansed” (verse 14), and all of the many and mystic years of evening and morning oblations had been ended in Jesus Christ crucified and resurrected from the dead. (Compare 9:24) Therefore: “Shut up the vision!” Till the end of the end-time and the second Advent of Christ when, again, “The sanctuary SHALL be cleansed” through resurrection from the dead of the saints!

The Seventh Day Adventists’ most serious mistake is that they completely disregard verse 26 of Daniel chapter 8 – and in regard to both aspects of the verse. “And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told had been true. Therefore you must shut the vision up because it (then was) for many days (but now had been fulfilled).” The verbs “is” and “shall be” are supplied and so create the idea of future fulfillment from Daniel’s point in time. From our point in time of course it’s all past tense. The express command is to “shut up the vision” – first part of the verse. But temporarily – that is also expressly reserved: second part of the verse. 

Hill in saying, “The indignation (of the 2300 ereb boqer) refers to the 490 years of God’s punishing of Israel”, practices exactly what he accuses the Adventists of doing, namely to force these two prophecies into one.

Hill thereby is forced to dare further unwarranted conclusion, that the 70 weeks are not continuous or consecutive, He has no reason to so infer but his stance of some simultaneous development of the 2300 ereb boqer and the 70 weeks. He has to stretch the weeks by dividing them in order to coincide and correlate with the 2300 ereb boqer. His apologies despite his dividing of the 70 weeks into

Three separate periods of hardship (that) need not be consecutive”, because

They are only a fulfillment of the sevenfold curse of the law, and” because

The turbulent years of the Jews since their return from exile allows ample room for the fulfillment of the 490 years of punishment”, and that

Any attempt to calculate dates rests on the assumption that the KJV interprests the verse correctly and that the anointed one referred to is Jesus Christ”,

simply doesn’t convince, is superficial and groundless, cannot prove the KJV’s interpretation wrong, and offers no alternative.



Hill also does not take into consideration the Paschal-character of the seventy Paschal or Messianic “weeks”.

Most damaging to his own theory, Hill with his division of the 70 weeks forces the prophecy to fit Antiochus Epiphanus instead of to allow the prophecy to determine who would fit its fulfillment. With God as the Ruler over time and history, it is not even the prophecy that could determine who fits its completion – it is the Fulfiller Himself Who would determine the prophecy and its fulfillment.

The angel already explains the “evening and morning”-units represent days, 8:26. Any further conversion into years no longer is the Scripture’s explanation, but must be arbitrary. The “many days” are any length of time in a double way: First in reaching the beginning of the end-time as inaugurated and represented by Christ.  (It also accommodates Antiochus Epiphanus shortly before the birth of Christ.) Then again the “many days” are any length of time in the sense of reaching far into the future of the end time in fact right up to its end. The “2300 evening and morning sacrifices” don’t literally indicate as many years or as many literal sacrifices!

Quite differently though, 9:2 introduces the “vision” of the seventy weeks in the context of Daniel’s searching for the meaning of Jeremiah’s prophecy of seventy years. It suggests the “seventy weeks” would also refer to “years”. Then fulfillment through Jesus Christ – and to the year – confirms “years” are supposed. In fact through Jesus Christ the fulfillment and Fulfiller of the prophecy, its “days” would each, retrospectively, be confirmed as having been “years”. The 70 weeks prophecy finds its definite ending point in history – in Jesus Christ – after which a further indeterminate stretch of time of this prophecy – one of “desolations”   reaches up to the end of the consummation of all things with the coming of Christ and judgement day.

For the Daniel 8 prophecy the word hazah is used. In 9:23, mareh is used. Compare 8:15 for the use of both words, hazah – “vision”; mareh – “appearance”. The first is mystical; the second real. 

The Adventists consider the verb cutt off (Or is it an adjectival – I don’t know Hebrew or Aramaic?) as not applying to the Jewish nation – thy people – but to the 2300 evening and morning oblations. So Mrs. White in the last phrase of our above quotation from her, “… the decree .. required by the prophecy to mark the beginning of the 2300 years”! (Like Hill I also haste to add: UNQUOTE!) This the Adventists do in direct contradiction of the plain statement and context of the text, “Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city to finish transgression”. The 2300 evening and morning oblations are NOT regarded as representing as many years, NOR as representing “transgression”. The term “cut off” is NOT a matter of “deduction from”, another period of time, but it is a matter of “determination” or “testing” for the Jewish people and city.

A further neglect concerns the times and circumstances under which Daniel received the different visions. He received the vision of the evening and morning oblations, “In the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar” – 548 B.C. (8:1); The vision of the seventy weeks, long after, “In the first year of Darius” – 539 B.C.. (As Hills says, it didn’t take the angel 9 years to respond to Daniel’s plea.) Political turmoil ruled the day “in the reign of king Belshazzar”. In contrast, Daniel received his second prophetic revelation “In the first year of Darius … king over the (settled) realm of the Chaldeans” – 539 B.C.. (9:1) Daniel received this “revelation” or “explanation” while he studied and prayed to understand “the number of years whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that he would accomplish seventy years in the desolation of Jerusalem.”

In Daniel’s time the vision had been future; in our day it had been fulfilled – in Christ it found its full fulfillment.

Daniel 9 – the vision of the seventy weeks – is explained by the angel in specific detail. Its whole tenor suits an interpretation in terms of historic time. And no doubt it is Messianic – it is an eschatological Scripture that applies to Jesus Christ and would be fulfilled by events of His life and Power to reign over death and its warmongers themselves.

The vision of the 2300 evening and morning oblations is in fact explained to some extent in the eighth chapter – “make this man to understand the vision”! (16) “This man” was Daniel. He was privileged with a full(er) understanding of the vision – nobody else … until Jesus.

We believe in Christ who is the end of the vision. He has cleansed the “sanctuary” of his “People and holy City” the Church – “Jerusalem above”, says Hebrews. He finished the building of it. He accomplished it in that he “finished the transgression, and made an end of sin, had made reconciliation for iniquity, and has brought in everlasting righteousness”. Jesus Christ in fact “sealed up the vision and prophecy, and anointed the Most Holy of the temple of God’s presence in heaven for us who believe. We have changed Daniel’s use of the future tense to past and present tense, for legitimate reason – by reason of Christ its fulfillment and Fulfiller.


Appendix continued. With reference to Sdaily of 29 and 31 July 2002 whether quoted or adapted :

Day for Year

According to Ted Noel, Sdaily, 27 Jul 2002, Jews used the “year-day principle” “in their thinking and writing”.

The book of Jubilees gives Noah’s age at death as “19 jubilees, 2 weeks and 5 years,” which only equals 930 years (Gen 9:29) if a “week” (shabuwa) is seven years. (This is a typical Hebrew sequence in descending order: Weeks of weeks [Jubilees], weeks, and years.)

Ex 13:10 commands that the Passover be kept “from days to days” (lit. Hebrew). The same word for “days”, yom is used repeatedly in a similar annual context. 1Sam 2:19 tells of how Samuel’s mother brought him a coat each year. The literal Hebrew says that she came “from days to days”. This usage is repeated in Judges 11:40. 1 Sam 1:21 refers to a yearly sacrifice with yom, literally calling it a “daily” sacrifice. This same form is used to specify duration. 1 Sam 27:7 uses “days and four months” (lit.) to specify a year and four months. Num 9:22 uses “two days, or a month, or days” to mean “two days, or a month, or a year”.

Prophecy and Literal Fulfilment

Ted Noel further argues that,

In Mark 1:15 our Lord states that "the time is fulfilled." This specifically identifies the fulfilment of prophetic time. Thus also Daniel 9:25. Jesus specifically identified himself as the Messiah. 1 Peter 1:20 and Hebrews 1:2 similarly identify Jesus' arrival on the scene as being "at the end of the times" (lit Greek). This use of a phrase identifying the end of time echoes Daniel's use of the phrase "at the end of the days". (He used it 4 times.) Hebrews 9:26 makes it more dramatic by saying that it was "at the consummation of the ages." Paul confirms the point in Gal.4:4 by saying that Jesus came "at the proper time."

These texts speak to fulfilment of prophecy – like that of Daniel 9:25. The decree found in Ezra 7, fits the "to restore and to build up" (lit. Hebrew) specification of Dan 9:25.

Since the testimony of Scripture is so affirmative (says Ted Noel, in Sdaily of 27 Jul 2002) of both the year-day nature of the prophecy and the exactness of both the beginning and ending of the 69 weeks, why is there any need for approximation?

A Connection Between Daniel 9:24-27 and 8:14?

Argues Ted Noel, Sdaily, 27 Jul 2002,

A biblical basis is of crucial importance, since if we do not have any biblical criteria, any convenient set of dates that coincidentally match the duration can be applied. And when applied to Daniel 8:14, unless Daniel 9:24-27 is an explanation of it, there is no biblical data whatever that will allow it to be understood. Not one text anywhere else in either Old or New Testaments even remotely brings any comment to bear on this question.”

Were my thoughts: The supposition that unless Daniel 9:24-27 is an explanation of Daniel 8:14 there is no biblical data whatever that will allow Daniel 8:14  to be understood is quite true. Not one text anywhere else in either Old or New Testaments even remotely brings any comment to bear on the question of the interpretation of Daniel 8:14. Is it not exactly what the prophecy intended? “Shut thou up the vision!” says verse 26; “For its fulfilment is meant for after many days.”

A biblical basis is of crucial importance. If we do not have biblical criteria, any convenient set of dates that supposedly might match the duration can be applied. Since that biblical basis is wanting, no set of dates should be tried to be applied to the “locked up” meaning of Daniel 8:14.

Here is George Desnoyers’ (“a member or regular communicant at several evangelical churches”) comment – almost word for word:

A biblical basis is of crucial importance, since if we do not have any biblical criteria, any convenient set of dates that coincidentally match the duration can be applied. And when applied to Daniel 8:14, unless Daniel 9:24-27 is an explanation of it, there is no biblical data whatever that will allow it to be understood.”


Explicit Linkage”?

Ted Noel,

This brings us to the explicit linkage in the Hebrew, defined by Gabriel, that the prophecy of 9:24-27 was an explanation of the previously not understood audition (mar'eh) of 8:13-14.

George Desnoyers,

            What mystical thing is there about the word "mar'eh" that only allows it to be used with regard to one prophetic vision in Daniel?  The visions of chapters 8 and 9 were given at different times and dealt with different subjects. Daniel's concern at the beginning of chapter 9 is explicitly stated.  It was the prophecies of Jeremiah concerning the Babylonian captivity and restoration of Jerusalem. Daniel's concern at the beginning of chapter 9 was NOT the vision of chapter 8.”

            Cut Off

Ted Noel,

The next issue is the htk root in Dan 9:24. This means to amputate. It does not mean to decree. That root is hrs. And Daniel uses hrs in verses 25, 26, and 27 to mean "decree." There is a specific contrast drawn by the Hebrew. Further, htk requires something from which to cut. This brings us to the explicit linkage in the Hebrew, defined by Gabriel, that the prophecy of 9:24-27 was an explanation of the previously not understood audition (mar'eh) of 8:13-14. The reason that non-SDA interpreters deny this conclusion is that they refuse to accept what the Hebrew says. You may not like the 9-10 year gap between the revelations, but the link is EXPLICIT in the Hebrew. If you wish to disregard the Hebrew, then you cannot call your studies biblical.”

Since the 70 weeks are year-day in fulfilment, this REQUIRES that the 2,300 evenings/mornings also be year-day.”

            I’m totally unable to grasp the logic or necessity.

George Desnoyers,

That would only be necessary if you believe that the seventy weeks of years (490 years) are "cut off" of the 2300 evenings and mornings.  They are not. As I explained above, the vast majority of translators reject your idea that the word of interest in Daniel 9:24 should be translated "cut off."  Show me the versions of the Bible that say "cut off."

As I've shown two or three times, chapters 8 and 9 are different visions and prophecies. Chapter 8 has nothing to do with Jeremiah's prophecies concerning the seventy years of exile, and subsequent restoration of Jewish Jerusalem. That is explicitly stated to be Daniel's concern at the beginning of chapter 9.”

The SDA insistence that the word should be translated "cut off" is

self-serving to the peculiar SDA interpretation of the 2300 evenings and

mornings as 2300 years.  The vast majority of scholars reject that

interpretation.  Just check out the modern English versions of the Bible,

such as the NIV.  Most of the modern versions are very carefully translated from the original languages by committees of scholars.  Most modern versions I've seen translate the word as "determined" or "decreed."  The NIV protocols, carried out over several years, required at least six reviews by committees of translators or editors, all of whom worked from the original languages.  Several other modern translations have been produced using similar protocols.  If any translates the word used in Daniel 9:24 as "cut off," you'll have to tell me which one it is.”

            Neither of the gentlemen seem to notice that to “cut off” in whatever sense, applies to the Jewish People – not to a time period.

George Desnoyers also should have pointed out how the “cut off”-argument is counter-productive for the assumed connection between Daniel 9:24-27 and Dn.8:14.


Ted Noel,

As for cutting from one end, as I said previously, consider a 10 foot rope. You are to cut off 3 feet. That will leave you with a 3 foot and a 7 foot length. If you cut from the middle, you will have a 3 foot and two undefined lengths. You will similarly leave the 2,300 days dangling if you cut from the middle. You must cut from the beginning, since that is the only way that the 2,300 days will have any biblical definition.” (Emphasis CGE.)

Who says one should “cut off” while the meaning is to “determine”? And who – a priori – says one should “cut off” from the 2300 ereb boqer?



Ted Noel,

You correctly note that Dan 8:14 answers a question in 8:13, which is about the suspension of the daily services (not sacrifices, the word is not in the Hebrew) in the temple.

Neither is the word “services”, “in the Hebrew”. Even might “services” be meant, it would involve “sacrifices”. But more important, neither is “the word … the temple … in the Hebrew”. “The sanctuary” can and does have much wider meaning than “the temple”. “The sanctuary” can mean God’s People.

"What temple?"

Ted Noel,

But the question at hand is "What temple?"  Psalm 11:4 identifies God's temple as being in heaven.

Psalm 11:4 identifies “heaven” with “the children of men”. God dwells among men of the earth as Judge. The “temple” represents God’s judgement by presence. “His countenance doth behold the upright.”

It is not necessary to arbitrarily require an earthly temple to be defiled.

If “the Lord is in his holy temple, the Lord’s throne in heaven”, as Psalm 11 sings, the presence of whom or of what else can “defile” his temple? 

And, as I have posted in another context, the defilement required a cleansing in 1844 (not the Day of Atonement, however).

What “defilement” “require(s) a cleansing” once for all? The perpetual defilement by sin. When was this once for all cleansing done? In 1844? I thought in the year of our Lord’s crucifixion!

George Desnoyers,

Why would the Holy Spirit be prophesying about an invisible Temple somewhere in the sky? Prophecies are to be tested by whether they become true.  How do you plan on testing your theories concerning a Temple in heaven?  Isn't it far more plausible that the cornfield vision (of a Temple in heaven) was a delusion experienced by a man who just could not admit the totality of his folly …?

… I don't think my proposed basis for the weeks-of-years interpretation of the seventy weeks vanishes.  An exact parallel between Lev. 26 and the situation addressed in Daniel 9:24-27 is not required.  You are right that the seventy-year exile was the punishment. But the period of interest to Daniel, the seventy years, WAS multiplied by seven.  And the Jews were familiar with the idea of an original period of time being multiplied by seven (see Lev. 26:17-18, where a threat is made of

multiplying a length of time - a period of foreign reign - by seven). What is important for the proper interpretation of the seventy weeks is that the Jews would be familiar with the three ideas I listed when I wrote:

            "The unique interpretation involving weeks of years in the prophecy of Daniel 9:24-27 is NOT based on any year-day principle, but is based on the following three ideas with which Daniel would be very familiar: first, the idea that seventy-year Babylonian captivity was a punishment (Jeremiah 25:4-11); second, the concept of an original punishment being multiplied by seven (Leviticus 26:14-39, especially verses 18, 21, 23-24, and 27-28); and third, the concept of weeks of years, i.e. years in groups of seven  (Leviticus 25:1-8)."

            In my opinion the superficially different theories – in the case of the “70 weeks” – contribute and confirm the ‘principle’ that a prophetic ‘day’ stands for a solar ‘year’ whether it is an unique instance or not.


Ted Noel,

            Since there is now no basis for a figurative interpretation of the time prophecies in Daniel …”.


            Almost all of Daniel is symbol and figure that supply absolute “basis for a figurative interpretation of the time prophecies”.


Further, since scripture confirms the exactness of the fulfilment of the 70 weeks, we should regard that as the final word.”

Where prophetic time – in the case of “the 70 weeks” – in fact is “…speaking of defined, not fuzzy, periods” we should regard as indicative its fulfilment confirms the exactness.

            George Desnoyers, I feel, is not as ‘exact’ when he protests,


Scripture confirms no such thing.  You have assumed, for example, that the exact year of Jesus' baptism can be known, completely ignoring contradictory Scriptures relating to the time of Jesus' birth and his age when he began his public ministry.”


George Desnoyers more than once resorts to the apology of, “contradictory Scriptures relating to the time of Jesus' birth and his age when he began his public ministry.” George Desnoyers not what I know of supplies his alleged “contradictory Scriptures”. I could not find any.

            Both gentlemen, again, fail to recognise the Paschal nature of the 70 weeks prophecy, and therefore fail to realise just how exactly Jesus fulfils the Scriptures – so exactly that the New Testament vigorously protests Jesus’ fulfilling of prophecy to the day, “the third day according to the Scriptures” (of Passover … like in Daniel).







Year of birth of Jesus.  Jesus was born “in the days of king Herod” (Mt.2:1, Lk.1:5) who was the father of Archelaus (Mt.2:22) and who reigned 37 B.C. until his death 4 B.C. He died at the time of an exceptional lunar eclipse, according to Flavius Josephus. 4 B.C. is the terminus ante quem for the birth of Jesus. Herod was of the opinion that the Child could have been anything to two years old. Jesus by 4 B.C. could have been just recently born.

“Taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.” (Lk.2:2) Cyrenius – Greek for Latin, Quirinius. The title “governor” has wider meaning and also may refer to the viceregency of Cyrenius from 12 B.C. to 16 AD. Nevertheless the fact that Saturninus was governor specific between 9 and 6 B.C. and Quintilius from 6 to 4 B.C. indicates a sharper focus on Cyrenius’ rule as that of governor proper from 4 B.C. on. The taxing period which lasted from 7 B.C. to 7 AD. overlapped Cyrenius’ term of office. It was during the earlier half or “first making of taxes” (with 4 B.C. the possibility) that Jesus was born.

Clement Alexandrinus (who died in 216 AD) made the statement (for which reason we don’t know) that Jesus was born in the 28th year of Caesar Augustus. In the sixth century AD Dionysius Exiguus – who wrongly assumed that Augustus became ruler in 726 a.u.c. – in order to establish the Christian year count deduced that Jesus must have been born in the year 754 a.u.c. (726 + 28 = 754)

But this very Caesar Augustus under the name of Octavianus had been monarch since 722 a.u.c.. The senate in 726 a.u.c. only made him Caesar.

 Dionysius Exiguus should have started the Christian year count from 750 a.u.c.. The Christian calendar consequently began to be applied with four years unaccounted for.

Jesus died when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judeah. He officiated from 26 to 36 AD., the terminus post quem of Jesus’ death. The first time Pontius Pilate is made mention of was with the crucifixion of Jesus, and it could be inferred that it must have been soon after he had been instated as governor.

Herod the Great came to power in 37 B.C.. He started rebuilding the temple in his eighteenth regnal year – 20 / 19 B.C.. “This temple took fourty six years to complete” the Jews reminded Jesus at the beginning of his public ministry (John 2:20) as if the temple (or the main part of it) had been completed at that point in time. That indicates the year 26 / 27 AD. If Jesus then had been 30 years old, the Christian year reckoning is four years behind.

Much more historic data about the times of Jesus’ birth and death may be scrutinised – but like the information about Pontius Pilate, nothing can pin point the dates of either.

Luke (3:23) says Jesus “was beginning about thirty years of age” – ehn archomenos hohsei etohn triakonta, when He started his ministry. In the Old Testament 30 years old was deemed the age of adulthood and maturity for public ministry. No reason exists why Luke’s relative restriction, “about” - hohsei, should mean more than just months, but years, past or before the age of thirty. The very clause requires exactness: ‘Jesus’ thirtieth year had just begun …’. See Lk.9:28 where “about eight days” means “exactly eight days”. In 22:44 – “like drops of blood” = “just like drops of blood”. “Like idle tales” = “Nothing but idle tales!” – 24:11. More than once in the Gospels it says Jesus’ “time was not yet”. The idiomatic expression which Luke uses and is translated as were Jesus “about” 30 years old when He started his public ministry therefore must be interpreted as stressing preciseness, “Then in fact when He was thirty years of age”. The time for it had now come.

Why mention Jesus’ age at all if it wasn’t of importance? And if of importance, it should have been correct.

If counted from the year 457 B.C., this Scripture – if exact – unequivocally implies the Christian calendar is behind with 4 years.

The date of 457 B.C. as the first year of the 490 years of the seventy prophetic weeks of years of Dn.9:24 perfectly suits the date of 26 AD being the beginning of “the seventieth week”.

If Lk.3:23 could be taken for precise – and there is no reason why not – then Jesus’ “had just begun” – ehn hohsei archomenos, his thirtieth year of age during Autumn of 26 AD. Autumn in the northern hemisphere indicates the time of year of Jesus’ birth – round about September October. Which is the time of year of the Feast of Tabernacles! (See Table on p. 284.)

Now again have a look at the Appendix on the Feast of Booths from p. 272 above. I can assure the reader I never in my life have given thought to these correlations before this very time of writing these lines. The relation between and mutual confirmation of the two originally rather speculative approaches seem now very confirming of the correctness of both.

It comes as a great and splendid surprise that these three Appendixes fall in place so graciously!  (View Chronological Correlation, p. 292-3.)









Birth of Yeshua

Author unknown!

Most Gentile Christians wouldn't bother to speculate about the time when Jesus was born. They celebrate it on December 25th even though they know there is no Biblical basis for choosing that date. However, there are some Messianic Jews who believe that they know, with a reasonable degree of certainty, the time of year when Yeshua (Jesus) was born. Taking into account certain Jewish customs and traditions, it's not difficult to calculate it.

There is quite a wide consensus of opinion that Yeshua was born at some time during the High Holy Days of Rosh Hashana (New Year) and Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), or at Succot (Tabernacles) which follows soon afterwards. These festivals normally occur in the Autumn, about September or October, but it varies from year to year because the Jewish calendar is based on the cycles of the moon and doesn't fit in with the Gregorian calendar.

The calculation of the time of Yeshua's birth begins with Zechariah, the father of John the Baptist. According to Luke 1:5 he was a priest of the order of Abijah. He was performing his duties, burning incense in the Temple, when an angel appeared and said his wife Elizabeth would conceive and bear a son, and he would be called Yochanan (John).

The order in which the priestly families performed their duties is given in 1 Chronicles 24:7-18. According to the Mishnah, the cycle begins on the first Shabbat (Sabbath) of Nisan, and each family of priests would minister in turn for one week. Since there are 24 families, each family would minister about twice a year. The cycle would be delayed slightly because all priests, regardless of their families, were required to be at the Temple for the three festivals of Pesach (Passover), Shavuot (Pentecost) and Succot (Tabernacles).

The family of Abijah was eighth in line, so Zechariah would have had his first period of duty during Sivan (about June) and his second period during Kislev about six months later. There is no way of knowing for sure which period of duty is referred to in Luke's Gospel, but if we suppose it is the first period we get some very interesting results.

Zechariah finished his first period of duty about the middle of Sivan. Because of his unbelief, God struck him dumb, but his reproductive system was still working. He went home to his wife and she became pregnant. Count off 40 weeks, the usual period of gestation, and we get to the month of Nisan the following year. Beginning on the 14th of Nisan, and lasting for eight days, we have the festival of Pesach (Passover), which roughly coincides with Easter on the Christian calendar. This raises the distinct possibility that John the Baptist was born at Pesach, which coincides with the Jewish expectation that Elijah would come at Pesach. The Jews always put an extra cup of wine on the table at Pesach, in the hope that Elijah will come and drink it.

If John the Baptist was born at Pesach, Yeshua (Jesus) must have been born during the High Holy Days or at Succoth. In Luke 1:26 and 36 we are told that Yeshua was six months younger than John. When the decree went out for everyone to go to their home town to be registered, Joseph and Mary set off for Bethlehem. They would have set out in good time, before Mary was fully 40 weeks pregnant, because she wouldn't want to be jogged into childbirth while riding on a donkey. Besides, they would have wanted to complete the journey before Rosh Hashana.

We are given a clue about the time of the birth by the angel who appeared to the shepherds and said "Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people". (Luke 2:10). There are actually two clues here. Succot is a festival of joy, and it is also known as the "Festival of the Nations". The angel was actually giving them a greeting for the Festival of Succot. This is the only festival

where the nations are positively encouraged to participate. (Zechariah 14:16-19).

During Succot, the Jews contruct flimsy shelters called "Succah", using wood and leaves, and eat or sleep in them. This is to remember how they were completely dependent on God as they wandered around for forty years in the desert when they came out of Egypt. They are celebrating "God with us".

The birth of Yeshua at Succot fulfils another prophecy: "Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us". (Matt. 1:23, a quotation from Isaiah 7:14).

If this is not enough, we also have to consider the type of dwelling in which Yeshua was born. Had it not been for the inconvenience caused by the census, he would have been born in a house like all other children. But he wasn't, he was born in a stable, a flimsy dwelling where they kept sheep and cattle. So he was born in a Succah, to indicate that God had come to earth to dwell with humanity.

Eight days later, according to Luke 2:21, he was circumcised. NOT in the Temple as some suppose, but in Bethlehem, probably in the Succah where he was born. Mary would still be ceremonially unclean for 33 days after the circumcision according to Leviticus 12. Besides, she would be unlikely to travel to Jerusalem so soon after the birth even though it was not very far.

If the day of his birth was the first day of Succot, the day of his circumcision would be the eighth day of Succot which, like the first day, is a day of sacred assembly. (Leviticus 23:39). On this day, or traditionally the day after, the Jews complete their annual cycle of Torah readings and start again from Bereshit (Genesis). It is called Simchat Torah (Rejoicing of the Law), and is considered to be a time of "fulfilment" of the Torah. The circumcision of Yeshua at this time indicates how he had come to fulfil the Law and the Prophets (Matt. 5:17-18). Also in John 1:14 we read about how "The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us" - another obvious reference to Succot.

When the days of Mary's purification were over (33 days after the circumcision), they would have made their way to Jerusalem to sacrifice a pair of doves or young pigeons. (Luke 2:22-24). Then they went back to Nazareth (Luke 2:39).  . . . . . . . . .





Of the Christian calendar taking as the year of Christ’s birth

according to Dionysius,


who in fact under the name of Octavianus





























(722 a.u.c.)








































(726 a.u.c.)


























































457 “days”











33 “days” of


of one year each










=  490 years





















































the 28th year of reign of Caesar Augustus who,

ruled from 726 a.u.c.,


had been ruling since 722 a.u.c..




















































































































one year each










70 th





   Daniel 9:24