Appendix to p. 76-78, Out of the Deep “In Afternoon”
In Part Four, Paul, I quoted Jonathan Edwards, p. 197f,
“The resurrection of Christ from the dead, is in Scripture represented by his coming up out of deep waters. So it is in Christ’s resurrection, as represented by Jonah’s coming out of the sea; Matt. xii. 40. It is also compared to a deliverance out of deep waters, Psalm lxix, 1, 2, 3, and verse 14, 15. These things are spoken of Christ, as is evident from this, that many things in this Psalm are in the New Testament expressly applied to Christ, (Compare verse 4 with John xv. 25. and ver. 9. with John ii. 17. and ver.2 with Matt xxvii. 34, 48. and Mark xv. 23. and John xix. 29. and ver. 2 with Rom.xi.9, 10, and ver.25 with Acts 1:20.) – Therefore, as the Jewish Sabbath was appointed on the day on which the pillar of cloud and fire rose out of the Red sea, and on which Moses and the church, the mystical body of Christ, came up out of the same sea, which is a type of the resurrection of Christ; it is a great confirmation that the Christian Sabbath should be kept on the day of the rising of the real body of Christ from the grave, which is the anti-type. For surely the Scriptures have taught us, that the type should give way to the anti-type, and that the shadow should give way to the substance.”
Christ was that Substance, and the Sabbath pointed to Him that Substance and awaited Him for the fulfilment of its substance – not the First Day of the week or of its substance.
On p. 300f there, I have said,
Seeing it cannot be denied the day of the entering into God’s Rest is the Day of the Sabbath, one further objection must be considered. It is the problem of the time of Jesus’ entering into Rest through Resurrection from the dead. As says Edwards, “… that the shadow should give way to the substance.”
First, let it be observed the moment creates the Day, not the day the moment. We talk of
“Resurrection Day”, not of
Resurrection Morning” or
whatever portion of the day.
The Event – Resurrection –
makes of it the Day-of-Resurrection.
Thus Edwards also sees things. Says he, “But
the day that the
coming up of the children of
“It is a great confirmation that the Christian Sabbath should be kept on the day of the rising of the real body of Christ from the grave, which is the antitype. For surely the Scriptures have taught us, that the type should give way to the antitype, and that the shadow should give way to the substance.”
I then asked:
Is there any necessity in the morning or the afternoon in this scheme of things?
And I answered at that point in time:
Of course not; it
necessitates the whole day! The event is much greater than the moment or
even the whole day belonging to the moment. We may fairly conclude from this
that Edwards makes no clear distinction between the morning and the day
of the Israelites’ crossing of the
After several years I have had a closer look at these texts, and now must answer differently on the question of what the word “morning” in these texts mean.
I don’t know Hebrew at all, but with the help of Young’s Analytical Concordance to the Bible, was able to make the following analysis of some relevant words.
“13, And Moses said to the people, Fear not, stand
still, and see the salvation of the LORD, which He will show you today
… 21, And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the LORD caused the
sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and dried up
the sea, and the waters were divided. 22, And the
19, And the angel of God, which went before the camp
23, and the Egyptians pursued, and went in after
them … 24, And it happened that in the morning watch the LORD
looked unto the host of the Egyptians … and troubled the host of the Egyptians
– 25, they lost the wheels of their chariots, and they moved with difficulty,
so that the Egyptians said, Let us run away of Israel, out of sight! For the
LORD fought for
26, Then the LORD told Moses, Stretch out your hand over the sea that the waters may close in over the Egyptians, over their chariots and over their horsemen. 27, And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fought against the waters; and the LORD overthrew the Egyptians in the middle of the sea … 28 … There remained not so much as one of them, 29, but the children of Israel walked on dry ground right through the middle of the sea – to them the waters formed a wall on both sides.
30, Thus the LORD saved
“That night” / “all that night” the storm raged!
“That night” / “all that night”, the LORD was fighting for
I therefore have a problem with the KJV that says “when the morning appeared” (27), “Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength” and everything was over, because “when the morning appeared”, is “dawn” before “all that night” had passed.
“When the morning appeared” is from boqer pahnah. When the “morning” – boqer, “appears” or ‘rises’, it ‘faces’ west. But ‘noon’, it has “turned”, pahnah, and now ‘faces’, east! Ezekiel 43:17, “The stairs of the sanctuary “faced”, or were “turned”, east” – pahnah.
In Ex.14:27, boqer pahnah doesn’t mean “morning appeared” or that it ‘dawned’, but that “the sun turned (and looked east)” – “noon after”.
In Jeremia 2:27 the Lord reprimands his people, blaming them that “they have turned their back on Me” – “turned”, pahnah. The morning having turned its ‘back’ to its rising, is declining!
Jeremia 6:4 says it all: “Prepare ye war against her; arise, and let us go up at noon (tsohar). Woe unto us! For the day (yom) goeth away, for the shadows of the evening (ereb) are stretched out.” Which word here is from pahnah? – “goeth away”!
In Exodus 14:27 “morning appeared” not; it ‘went away’!
What about Exodus 14:24 though? There it says “It came to pass that in the morning watch”, the LORD saw the Egyptians … struggled to get their chariots rolling. If this had been “dawn”, then it simply says by dawn all was not over yet – the battle still raged; the “rest” had not been “entered” yet.
“In the morning watch” is from boqer ashmurah.
Lamentations 2:18-19, “Let tears run down like a river day and night: give yourself no rest … cry out in the night: In the beginning / first – rosh, of watches – ashmurah (first watch after sunset), pour out thine heart…”.
Judges 7:19, “Gideon came … outside the camp in the beginning of the middle (tikon) watch – ashmurah, and they had but newly changed guard.” This is the second and deep night watch.
Psalm 90:4, “For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past; and as a watch – ashmurah, in the night (layelah) (when it is past)”. The last or third watch of night – of dawn – is supposed.
The Hebrew night watches were three; the Roman night watches were four. The Hebrews’ watches of daytime, like the Romans’, were two:
1 Samuel 11:11, “And it was so in the morning (boqer) that Saul put the people in three companies. And they came into the midst of the host in the morning (boqer) watch (ashmurah), and slew the Ammonites until the heat (chom) of the day (yom) (= noon)” – the exact words of Ex.14:24!
The second or afternoon watch, after this, then lasted till sunset.
So in Ex.14:27 we have boqer pahnah, and in verse 24, boqer ashmurah. If the time were the same they would have been called the same; but they are called differently and in fact were of different events.
God had told the Israelites to be quiet and wait for Him while “all night” the wind would blow the seabed dry.
Boqer ashmurah in verse 24 started after the wind had blown “all
night” and lasted “during the morning watch” or first watch of daytime.
Now the children of
Now, after the LORD’s battle, He ordered Moses so that the sea should close in again. Boqer pahnah in verse 27 was when the LORD triumphed. Boqer pahnah says “morning has turned” – it ended. All history has turned about. This was the moment! Victory, and the song of Moses! The People in broad daylight “saw that great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians” – verse 31. The People “have entered the rest” (in the words of Hebrews); they stood on the soil of the Promised Land.
The Exodus story gives the precise and same time of day for the moment of “Victory” that the Gospels give, epifohskousehi!
To remove a last obstacle to the better
understanding of the events of the Exodus and their times of day, return to
chapter 14 and read the text in its actual order, and not with verses 19 and 20
moved in between verses 22 and 23 as I did. With verses 19 and 20 between
verses 22 and 23, I made the time of day when the pillar of cloud and fire
changed position from in front of
Is there any necessity in the morning or the afternoon in this scheme of things?
I at this point in time must answer:
Of course THERE IS; it necessitates the whole day – “THE Sabbath of the LORD your God”, so that “In the end of the Sabbath, being light turned towards the First Day of the week … there suddenly was a great earthquake …!”
I think one may confidently view boqer pahnah as the nearest Hebrew equivalent of the Greek epifohskousehi – “after noon”; and boqer ashmurah as the nearest Hebrew equivalent of the Greek epaurion “daylight morning”.
‘The Law prescribed’ with no ambiguity, “when the lamb must be eaten”, just as it ‘prescribed’ with no ambiguity, “when it must be killed”:
“When it must be killed”:
“In the fourteenth day of the First Month at even .... Ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation shall kill it in the evening.” (Lv23:5 and Ex12:6) “At even” and “in the evening” are Old English for “afternoon” – confirmed through Christ the Passover Lamb of God who died ‘afternoon’, “the ninth hour” Jewish time, 3 p.m. “Sacrifice the passover at even at the going down of the sun”, Dt16:6.
Mark the utmost significant words, “Sacrifice the passover at even at the going down of the sun, at the season (or ‘time’)
that thou camest
forth out of
(See book 1/1 p 52, ‘Out on the 15th and In on the 16th Nisan’.)
Edited 21 July 2009