Modern Greek Translations

Howell, in his conclusion, point 2, also claims that “the obvious meaning of “after the sabbath”, (is) supported by the Modern Greek translation, by a Greek, from the original New Testament Greek”. (Emphasis CGE) Howell does not quote the scholar who did this “Modern Greek translation”. We hope to have had the same version available. The version here quoted in Mt.28:1 reads, Argha de kata tehn nukta tehn hohran pou ecsemerohmen. Literally translated: “Light (being) about / almost / against night the hour somehow outgoing day”. This is a description that fits the afternoon like a glove. Whether afternoon or dawn, this time specification in any case

limits the event – the resurrection – to the day that was running “out”, the Sabbath. It

does not place the event on the incoming day, Sunday, like: Meta to sabbaton, molis archise na phohtidzehi heh prohteh tehs hebdomados which obviously echoes Justin. It’s not so modern after all and says exactly the opposite the Textus Receptus says.


Dear SK, please explain to me how you come to conclude that “If it was always read this way by its readers, then that must also be the case … that if the word (opse) is best translated “dawn” or “sunrise”? Maybe the strong traditional predisposition of a Roman Catholic may find it not too strange to fathom. However, it was NOT always read this way by its readers, which must be deduced from opse’s use during ages of Greek before and during the first century wherein it had the exclusive meaning of “late”. Even the modern Greek translation of Mt.28:1 says “About outgoing day before the First Day”. Ref. P. 42,, p. 83,


I wrote on my book, The Lord’s Day in the Covenant of Grace, over twenty five years. I had the arguments of Paragraphs such as p. 60,, page 102,, p. 155 of Part Two, etc., fully formulated when for the first time only I took Justin’s reference to Mt.28:1 under scrutiny in the original.  I as it were anticipated what I discovered, that the grammatical and syntactical factors of the text are exactly switched about in order to arrive at Justin’s desired meanings essential for a Sunday-resurrection. Modern “versions” of Mt.28:1 do no different, like The New Authorised Version and this modern Greek translation, Meta to Sabbaton, molis arxise na photidzehi heh proteh hehmera tehs hebdomados – “After the Sabbath … with dawn (being – nominative) the First Day”. This, as Emil Brunner would have said, is dishonest! It is no translation, but typical of manipulations of the text. To call the rejection of such methods and the insistence on the only grammatically correct translation and interpretation of the original, “hair-splitting”, does not solve the problem. One should rather with the courage of one’s Christian conviction come to conclusive grips with it.


I am for thirty years trying to find people to discuss some serious problems with the Church’s keeping of Sunday instead of the Sabbath; and found but few! Of course the first ‘problem’ when discussing these problems is the Scriptures itself. Actually, consider that the Scriptures but very recently got available for the ordinary Christian. All Bibles in all translations of four centuries from the invention of printing had been but a small fraction of copies printed by a single Bible Society in just one year. And since then till about the turn of the twentieth century, the number of Bibles printed, again was but a fraction of what followed soon after. The most interesting aspect of these sudden increases is that they coincide, first, with missionary activity, and, second, with Roman Catholic predominance! These two phases reveal another and most important fact, namely, that almost every translation – no, each and every translation of the mission-phase, virtually was made from the old “Reformation Translations” like the KJV and Luther’s. If and when the Greek was used, it was the TR. But since the Roman Catholic involvement with Bible Societies, translations soared and took on a different character! The Nida Commission in South Africa – as elsewhere – determined, 1, that translations would use the new Texts (Nestle et al), and 2, should steer away from literal translation. Exactly this is there – for everybody without any knowledge of Greek – to see. AND THIS IS THERE TO SEE AND NOT TO SEE IN EVERY PASSAGE IN THE NEW TESTAMENT THAT DEALS WITH EITHER THE SABBATH OR THE FIRST DAY. This I believe, happened in fulfilment of Prophecy ! And this is what happened in the new Greek ‘translation’ you quote. (It is no translation, I dare to say; it is a typical manipulation.) The beast shall change Law and Times, that is, the Scriptures and the Scriptures where it is the most practical thing in the life of God’s People :  its Day of Worship. Remember I write as a Calvinist; I belong to the Reformed Church; I am a Protestant that goes along with the Church that believes in the ‘Sabbath’ … but just here, clashes with it. Now it is my aim to bring into the open the lies translated into God’s Word. That is why I wrote to you; why I am in a struggle with Bacchiocchi and anyone else who endorses and defends these distortions of the Scriptures. And that is who I am. Don’t bother to know anything else about me. It is not a matter about me or anything about me. I must be a madman for Christ, a Bible-puncher and fundamentalist of the first degree, that is, one who believes in the Inspiration and absolute trustworthiness and absolute authority of the Bible in matters of Faith and Practice


The Mithraic-Christian synchretism that was already gnawing at the vitals of the Roman church

Before I come to that:  The phrase mia tohn sabbatohn occurs in the New Testament only for the-First-Day-of-the-week. The words making up the name, cut out and then isolated from being constituent and contextual elements of the unitary “technical” New Testament name for the day of Sunday, cannot be extrapolated – cannot be given extended and different meanings. Bacchiocchi (The Sabbath in the New Testament, depending on Liddell and Scott), depends on this misconception for his explanation of Galatians 4:10 and as a result fails to convince.

Now back to the reference above: Striking to me are your remarks, “already”,  and “Imported from Persia, it had begun to strike root in the Roman world by the first century AD; by the second it was flourishing”. Herein lies the answer to Galatians 4:10; not in spoiling the meaning of words. Paul supposes and directly refers to paganism and its idolatry that right at the start of Christian history tried to make its inroads into the pure Faith. I could repeat several of your remarks that support this conclusion. Sunday did not appear suddenly and Justin not long after Paul strategically applied its accepted – be it heathen – “observation”, to “beguile” = “enthral” Christians. While flattering the Caesar he “dissuades” (KJ)  the Church. Justin was the first person we know of to have done so. Not necessarily the “educated people”, but specifically the Galatian Christians were “unable to turn their backs on the prevalent culture and tried to preserve as much as possible of it (their “heathen”, “Greco-Roman heritage”). (We don’t read about this problem again in the New Testament or do we? Definitely not in Colossians 2:16 and Romans 14:5, 6.)  So the Galatians turned their backs on the Gospel! “Theological liberalism and an ecumenical spirit caused them to take the final step of syncretism: mixing Bible religion with heathen elements”. Paul called the spade a spade and said the Galatians were returning to their “no-gods” or idols of their previous status in paganism. They turned back to more than statues and icons. As you have pointed out, Paul “did not drool or dawdle over images of the gods … instead “his spirit was provoked within him as he saw that the city was full of idols” He knew what emptiness and evil lurked beneath …”. The Galatian Christian converts turned back to “the weak and beggarly principles of the world”, i.e., to  “philosophy” as a religion. You identify some of the “principles”, like asceticism. Paul vented his provocation in desperation, “I have laboured in vain for your sakes! … You are cut off from Christ!”

Paul’s reference to the “observation of days etc,” is then a reference to PAGAN “days”, and Justin refers to the chief of these, “The Sun’s Day”. BY TWISTING CHRISTIAN SCRIPTURES he actually INTRODUCES PAGAN MYTH INTO IT to justify Christianity in the eyes of the emperor.  Today the same method is still used to convince gullible Christians of the (heathen and secret) foundation of the observance of Sunday. Sunday originally gained its foot hold in the Christian Church for exactly the same reason and by the very same instrument it has held on to that foot hold ever since – the MANIPULATION OF THE SCRIPTURES and the simple faith of good people!   But verily for the Protestant spirit of Calvinism such fraud could not go on undiscovered for ever. Calvin himself tried to put together the four Gospels – but had to give up because he could not reconcile the many discrepancies in the Gospels that are the direct result of the Sunday-resurrection presupposition! That is a fact little realised for its importance for the course the Reformation took. Barth viewed Calvin as the only real maker of the new beginning that was the Reformation. (Letzte Zeugnisse, EVZ-Verlag, Zürich, 1969, p. 67, “Das Charisma gyberneseos, die ‘Gnadengabe der Leitung’ macht sich dann (in dem Aufbrechen) geltend. In den alttestamentlichen Auszugs-geschichten war der sagenumwitterte Mose, in der Reformationszeit war Calvin (im Unterschied zu Luther und zu Zwingli) ein klassischer Träger dieses Charismas (von einem mehr oder weniger disziplinierten Geschehen (des Aufbrechen der Kirche).”) And I fully agree. Could Calvin have discerned these implications he would also have been the leader of the exodus from Sunday into the new land of the Seventh Day Sabbath of the Bible and consequently of Christianity.

An interesting and meaningful fact is this, that I wrote on my book over twenty five years when for the first time I took Justin under scrutiny in the original, and also the modern Greek. Long before, I formulated the arguments of Paragraphs such as p. 60,, page 102,, p. 155 of Part Two, etc. Not because I am clever, but by force of all true facts and implications, I as it were anticipated what I discovered in these two “versions” of Mt.28:1 – that the grammatical and syntactical factors of the text were switched about in order to arrive at the desired meanings essential for a Sunday-resurrection. This is, as Emil Brunner would have said, dishonest! To call the rejection of such methods and the insistence on only correct translation and interpretation, “hair-splitting”, does not solve the problem. Dear Mr de Kock, I plead with you to come to grips with these questions with the courage of your Christian conviction.


            Dear Professor Bacchiocchi,

(Your e-mail read: “I tried to read what you wrote but it is so garbled that I cannot figure out what you are trying to say. Thank you for making an effort to share your comments, though they are incomprehensible to me.
If you believe in the Wednesday Crucifixion, feel free to read my book on THE TIME OF THE CRUCIFIXION.”)

You say: “I cannot figure out what you are trying to say. ...  your comments ... are incomprehensible to me”. Nevertheless you are able to assert: “what you wrote ... is ... garbled”.

Collins English Dictionary explains the meaning of the word “garble”: “to jumble; to distort the meaning of (an account, text, etc.), as by making misleading omissions; (to) corrupt”.

Now I shall give you an example of what it is to ‘garble’:

It is to take the text of Mt.28:1 the phrase, opsé sabbátohn, meaning, “Late Sabbath’s-time”, and to make it metá sábbaton, meaning, “after the Sabbath”. Then, to take the second clausal phrase, epifohskóúsehi, meaning, “in the being of after-light” / “afternoon”, and to make it mean, “dawn” / “up-coming light”, (or, to ignore it totally). Then, to take the phrase, mían (hehméran) sábbaton, meaning, “before / towards the First Day of the week”, and to make it, tou hehlíou hehméran ... tehi autéhi hehmérai, meaning, “on the Day of the Sun(Lord)”. (Justin)

Here you have every element required for a procedure to be ‘garbled’: You have the jumbling, the distortion, the omissions, the misleading and the corruption – all of Matthew’s text and account.


I have told you many times before, I don’t “believe in the Wednesday Crucifixion”, but in the only, “Sabbath’s”-resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead. Feel free to read The Book that informs the believer on THE TIME OF THE CRUCIFIXION AND RESURRECTION of Jesus.

God’s sincerest blessing on your study of this topic that supplies the basis and essence of Christian Faith and Sabbath keeping!

Gerhard Ebersöhn